Depression affects many people, and it can be life changing. Medical treatment and counseling can often help relieve symptoms, but lifestyle remedies, such as a healthful diet, can also boost a person’s well-being.
There is no specific diet to treat depression, but eating more of some foods and less or none of others can help some people manage their symptoms.
In this article, we look at some foods and nutrients that may be beneficial and some that people should avoid.
Many nutrients are available to purchase, but people should ask their doctor’s advice before using any supplements, as they can sometimes interfere with other medications.
Link between diet and depression
A healthful diet may improve symptoms of depression.
One factor that may contribute to depression is a person’s dietary habits, which will determine the nutrients that they consume.
A 2017 study found that the symptoms of people with moderate-to-severe depression improved when they received nutritional counseling sessions and ate a more healthful diet for 12 weeks.
The improved diet focused on fresh and whole foods that are high in nutrients. It also limited processed refined foods, sweets, and fried food, including junk food.
Depressive symptoms, including mood and anxiety, improved enough to achieve remission criteria in more than 32% of the participants.
The researchers concluded that people could help manage or improve their symptoms of depression by addressing their diet.
Selenium Some scientistsTrusted Source have suggested that increasing selenium intake might help improve mood and reduce anxiety, which may help make depression more manageable. Selenium is present in a variety of foods, includingTrusted Source:
organ meats, such as liver
Supplements are available for purchase in health food shops. Vitamin D Vitamin D may help improve the symptoms of depression, according to a 2019 meta-analysisTrusted Source. People obtain most of their vitamin D through sun exposure, but dietary sources are also important. Foods that can provide vitamin D includeTrusted Source:
fortified dairy products
Supplements are also available for purchase in health food shops and pharmacies.
Omega-3 fatty acids The results of some studies have suggested that omega-3 fatty acids might help with depressive disorders. However, the authors of a 2015 reviewTrusted Source concluded that more studies are necessary to confirm this. Eating omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of mood disorders and brain diseases by enhancing brain function and preserving the myelin sheath that protects nerve cells. Good sources of omega-3 fatty acids includeTrusted Source:
cold-water fish, such as salmon, sardines, tuna, and mackerel
flaxseed, flaxseed oil, and chia seeds
Omega-3 supplements are also available in health food shops and pharmacies. Antioxidants Vitamins A (beta carotene), C, and E contain substances called antioxidants. Antioxidants help remove free radicals, which are the waste products of natural bodily processes that can build up in the body. If the body cannot eliminate enough free radicals, oxidative stress can develop. A number of health problems can result, which may include anxiety and depression. The results of a 2012 studyTrusted Source suggested that consuming the vitamins that provide antioxidants may reduce symptoms of anxiety in people with generalized anxiety disorder. Fresh, plant based foods, such as berries, are good sources of antioxidants. A diet that is rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, soy, and other plant products may help reduce the stress-related symptoms of depression. B vitamins Share on PinterestFoods containing whole grains are a good source of vitamin B-12. Vitamins B-12 and B-9 (folate, or folic acid) help protectTrusted Source and maintain the nervous system, including the brain. They may help reduce the risk and symptoms of mood disorders, such as depression. Sources of vitamin B-12 include:
some fortified cereals
Foods that contain folate includeTrusted Source:
dark leafy vegetables
fruit and fruit juices
meat and poultry
People can purchase vitamin B-12 and folate supplements in health food stores. Zinc Zinc helps the body perceive taste, but it also boosts the immune system and may influence depression. Some studiesTrusted Source have suggested that zinc levels may be lower in people with depression and that zinc supplementation may help antidepressants work more effectively. Zinc is presentTrusted Source in:
beef, chicken, and pork
nuts and pumpkin seeds
Supplements are also available in health food stores and pharmacies. Protein Protein enables the body to grow and repair, but it may also help people with depression. The body uses a protein called tryptophan to create serotonin, the “feel good” hormone. Tryptophan is present in:
Serotonin appears to play a roleTrusted Source in depression, but the mechanism is complex, and exactly how it works remains unclear. However, eating foods that may boost serotonin levels might be beneficial.
Probiotics Foods such as yogurt and kefir may boost the levels of beneficial bacteria in the gut. Healthy gut microbiota may reduce the symptoms and risk of depression, according to a 2016 meta-analysisTrusted Source. The researchers suggested that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium may help. Weight management Obesity appears to raise the risk of depression. This increased riskTrusted Source may be due to the hormonal and immunological changes that occur in people with obesity. A person who is overweight or has obesity may wish to consult their doctor or a dietitian about ways to manage their weight. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, which health authorities recommend, can help reduce blood pressure and improve overall health. There is also evidence that it can help with weight loss and may reduce the risk of depression.
Foods to avoid Some foods may aggravate the symptoms of depression. Alcohol There is a clear link between alcohol and mental health problems. A person may drink as a way to cope with depression, but alcohol can aggravate or trigger new bouts of depression and anxiety. Regularly consuming large amounts of alcohol can lead to further complications, such as accidents, family issues, loss of employment, and ill health. Even those who limit their alcohol consumption to no more than one drink a day have a higher risk of some types of cancer, according to the National Cancer Institute. Poor health, in turn, can lead to further depression. Refined foods Convenience foods, such as fast food and junk food, can be high in calories and low in nutrients. StudiesTrusted Source have suggested that people who consume lots of fast food are more likely to have depression than those who eat mostly fresh produce. Processed foods, especially those high in sugar and refined carbs, may contribute to a higher risk of depression. When a person eats refined carbs, the body’s energy levels increase rapidly but then crash. A bar of chocolate may give an instant boost, but a rapid low can follow. It is best to opt for fresh, nutrient dense, whole foods that provide a steady source of energy over time. Processed oils Refined and saturated fats can triggerTrusted Source inflammation, and they may also impair brain function and worsen the symptoms of depression. Fats to avoid include:
trans fats, which are present in many processed foods
fats in red and processed meats
safflower and corn oil, which are high in omega-6 fatty acids
Caffeine People with depression may benefit from not drinking caffeinated beverages after midday. At least one studyTrusted Source has found that a moderate intake of caffeine, in the form of coffee, may benefit people with depression. Caffeine’s benefits could be due to its stimulant effect and antioxidants properties. Caffeine is present in:
There is some evidenceTrusted Source that small amounts of caffeine may reduce anxiety and boost mood. However, some research has found that it may increase feelings of anxiety, stress, and depression in children of high school age. In addition, caffeine can affect a person’s ability to sleep. While caffeine may benefit some people, it is best to:
consume it only in moderation
avoid products with a high caffeine content, such as energy drinks
avoid caffeine after midday
Outlook Diet may play a role in depression. Following a diet that is low in processed foods and provides plenty of fresh, plant-based foods and healthful fats may help improve symptoms. Other tips that may help include:
getting at least 150 minutesTrusted Source of physical exercise each week
spending time outdoors
avoiding the use of alcohol and other substances
getting 7–8 hours of sleep in every 24 hours
A doctor can often recommend suitable treatments to help people manage the symptoms of depression, and these may include adopting a more healthful diet. Last medically reviewed on August 20, 2019
Nutrition / Diet
Article Courtesy of MedicalNewsToday.com by Jon Johnson https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/318428#weight
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